Bee Honey Extraction

bee keeping supplies
When you begin your beekeeping project to produce bee honey ,you should prepare some important tools that will help you to perform your work professionally . 

A bee honey extractor is one of these tools that you will need in beekeeping project , it is basically a modified centrifuge which is designed to extract honey from the frames without damaging the honey comb.

The extractor includes a container that holds a basket of frames in it, which spins throwing the honey out of the frames by the centrifugal force.
You will find honey extractors with different capacities  depending on the number of frames in there containers :

- Small capacity extractor : contains two –frames at least , it is used manually or by electric power .

These extractors are suitable for the hobbyist and the beginners in beekeeping.

- Large commercial extractor : is able to contain more than hundred frames .

There are also two types of extractors depending on how the frames are placed in the container :
1-Tangential extractor :

The honey comb is placed with one side of the frame facing outwards.

2-Radial extractor :

The honey comb is placed with the top bar facing outwards .

By using the radial type you do not need to turn over the frames to extract the other side ,  since all the quantity of honey went outwards already and could be directly tapped or pumped out , so this type is preferred than the tangential type for its reducing the time and effort of extraction work .

Honey extraction must be performed in a special hygienic room ,with an adequate temperature to allow a smooth honey flow .

This room contains all the tools and equipments required and must be sealed securely to prevent other insects and bees .

The extraction process :

The initial step is preparing the frames by breaking and removing all the wax caps covering it .

These caps are made by bees to keep and store the honey that placed into the honey combs .

The uncapping task can be done with the help of an automated uncapper or manually using a knife that is heated prior to cutting of the caps.

The uncapping process results in removed small pieces of wax which are actually rich in honey which needs to be drained by the means of a little heating.

After the uncapping process all frames will be placed in the container of the honey extractor.

The frames must be placed properly to the right direction.

You should place the comb a little upward to avoid the honey flowing out and then let it spin.

The honey that comes out from the extractor still contains small pieces of wax hence you need to filter it through a strainer to obtain the clear honey.


How to Acquire Honey Bees For Sale ?

bees for sale
If you love beekeeping hobby and want to start out as a beekeeper, the first task that must be completed is to obtain the hives and equipment that you will need to harvest bees , then you can begin the process of acquiring bees.

There are four options you can choose from them when you are going to get honey bees for sale :

1- Colonies :

This option may be the quickest and the easiest for the beginners in beekeeping .

You will start beekeeping with complete working hives containing all the bees that you will need to get started.

This includes a queen bee, worker bees, and drones as well as framing.

Colonies are available for purchase from local beekeepers or from other suppliers that you may found online.

2- Package of bees :

This option is suitable for more experienced beekeepers .

You will purchase this package of bees from local beekeeper in your area .

This option is more difficult than starting with colonies because these packages include a queen bee and a certain amount of worker bees.

In this case, the worker bees would have to be feed until they can begin producing honey on their own.

3- Nucleus :

Another option is to purchase a nucleus. However, with a nucleus, you only get a queen bee and a few worker bees.

This will give you a good start, but things will progress very slowly and harder at first. For the novice beekeeper.

4- Swarm of bees :

The last and most difficult option is that capturing a swarm of bees.

For beginning beekeepers, this option is discouraged.

It requires that you understand how swarming occurs and that you knows how to protect yourself from a swarm of bees.

These are the most options available to get bees for your beekeeping business or hobby. You can find honey bees for sale or choose to collect your own swarm of bees.

Before going on in your beekeeping business, you need to be informed on all the methods and strategies to successfully raise your honey bees.


Carniolan Bees 0r Western Honey Bees –what are the best for raising ?

When you start growing your own honey bees in the city for producing honey and pollinating your trees and flowers , There are many Reasons to Raise Carniolan Bees Instead of Italian (Western) Honey Bees . 

Carniolans, or Carnies, a subspecies ( Apis mellifera carnica).

-Raising Carniolan Bees is preferred to avoid pollination problems occure with the vanishing honey bees.

-These bees Can be kept in urban areas because they are very calm and non aggressive in its behavior toward beekeepers and other people.

-They are very strong in defending them selves against insect pests .
-More resistant to brood diseases, Varroa mites and other diseases that are devastating the honey bees.

-They have the ability to adjust worker population to nectar availability rapidly.

-The queen can adjust brood production according to the change of quantities of nectar , When nectar production is high the queen will produce large numbers of worker bees and vise versa.

-Carniolans are more home bodies with a better sense of direction then the Italian honey bee .

-They stay in small groups lover the winter season

.In the other side Carniolans have some disadvantages regarding this comparison :

-There production of wax is less than Italian honey bees .

-They do not like hot weather .

-They do not like large groups and will C if their numbers increase too much .

These bees are being raised on roof tops and back yards in many countries all over the world .


How To Identify Beehive Pests &Parasites Early ?

keeping honey bees
There are various pests that can affect your hives from functioning optimally so in this article I'm going to touch base on a few. 

1-Varroa Mites :

Is an external parasitic mite that attacks honey bees. The disease caused by the mites is called varroatosis.

The adult mite is reddish-brown in color; has a flat, button shape; is 1–1.8 mm long and 1.5–2 mm wide; and has eight legs.

This parasite is common in new colonies. delayed treatment of these parasites gives them the ability to build up resistance to any form of treatment that's applied in the future.

If an infected colony is not treated it will be wiped out within three years .

Varroa Mites has reached epidemic levels all over the world .

2- Wax Moth :

Although they are not making too much trouble for the honey bees but if during the destruction of the moth larvae the combs spill, they can contaminate stored honey and possibly kill bee larvae.

Most developed hives didn't need treatment to control wax moths as the bees are able to kill & clean out the dead moth larvae and webs.

3- Tracheal Mite :

Is a small parasitic mite that infests the airways of the honey bee causing the bees to be exhausted most of the time .

The most obvious signs of this are an increased number in crawling bees outside the hive .

4- Hive Beetle :

They are small dark beetles that live in beehives, they can take over the colony and drive out the bees.

Propolis - Health Benefits

propolis extract
Propolis is one of bee products and is used as natural antibiotic in the application of home remedies. 

Honey bees produce propolis by collecting sticky resins that ooze from the buds of some trees and plants. After chewing them and mixing them with their saliva and other substances, propolis is formed.

Some trees and conifers produce these sticky resins as part of their immune system defending themselves against diseases .

Propolis is used inside the hive for sterilizing the hive against diseases and infections by inhibiting the spread of bacteria, virus, and fungi .

Propolis is also known as 'bee glue',as it is used as a "putty" to seal cracks and openings in the hive and to strengthen and repair honeycombs .

Propolis contains approximately 50-70% resins, 30% wax, 10% etheric oils and 5% pollen. It has a high vitamin content (Vitamin A (carotene), Vitamin B1, B2, B3, biotin) and is extremely rich in bioflavonoids (Vitamin P) which are believed to have numerous immune building properties and health benefits.

Bioflavonoids are the natural pigments in fruits and vegetables and are found in abundance in oranges. This bee glue contains almost 500 times more bioflavonoids than is found in oranges!

It also contains an array of albumin, calcium, magnesium, potassium and phosphorus.

It is especially rich in amino acids, important for immune system function.

Because of its antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, Propolis has been used as :

-Ointments for healing cuts and wounds

-A natural alternative to penicillin and other antibiotics .

- Rinses for washing, gargling or irrigating the sinuses .

- A healthy alternative to synthetic brands of toothpastes as it is especially useful in mouth and gum disorders and prevents tooth decay, enhances oral hygiene, heals bleeding gums, and prevents gums receding.

Propolis extract now  comes in the form of sprays and candies. The spray claims that it is effective against flu, cuts, burns, gum and mouth infections, throat discomforts and intestinal discomfort, while the candy is sold as a good therapeutic substitute to the traditional throat lozenges and an aid to curing flu, colds, throat discomfort, cough and bad breath .

Side effects :

Propolis is generally non-toxic, though allergic reactions such as skin rashes, swelling, redness, eczema or fever have been reported.

Contra indications :

Women should not use Propolis during pregnancy and breast-feeding unless directed to do so by a physician.  


The Bee Honey - The Health Facts!

The Bee Honey - The Health Facts!
Bee honey is probably the best natural product, the bees produce honey from the nectar that collected from the flowers

The bees ingest the nectar and deposit it in their stomach, then return to the colony to surrender it.

Bee honey is easily digested and readily assimilated by humans, comprising a healthy source of energy.

Bee honey consumed as food is important for the balance of the biological process of the organism. It contains glucose and fructose, which goes directly into the blood.

Bee honey is used by people suffering from diabetes as a natural sweetener and as safety source of energy .

Bee honey helps in the control of rheumatism and arthritis, prevents many types of respiratory disorders, and aids the digestion. Bee honey may also be used on the skin as a constituent for some shampoos. It is used extensively in the cosmetic industry as well (cleaning facemasks, creams, tonics, etc.) because of its astringent and emollient qualities.

Eating honey stimulates and increases physical resistance and immunity against many common diseases.

Bee honey is somewhat sedative so it is used to help insomniacs in sleeping naturally without the use of drugs.

Honey is less fattening than sugar, and is one of the the best sources of carbohydrates, proteins, minerals and vitamins so it is a preferred choice for athletes.

Honey has been found to be very effective in preventing, controlling, or even curing the following health problems :

-Respiratory diseases : as an expectorant, combatting coughs .

-Digestive and intestinal disturbances : for its anti-septic, digestive and laxative properties helping in the treatment of gastritis and stomach ulcers .

-Urinary irritation .

- Skin burns and injuries .

- Throat irritation .

- Irritation of the eyes .

- Illnesses of the liver .

- Physical fatigue, cramps and rheumatic pains .

-Insomnia .

- Dental caries .

Finally I encourage all people to learn beekeeping to produce this natural product that is very useful for health and vitality .


How To Diagnose Beehive Diseases Early ?

All Professional  beekeepers inspect their beehives and colonies regularly for diseases & pests that can pose a threat to their colonies and they don't just assume that the drop in honey production or a decline in bee population is attributed to the above factors only.

Nutritional deficiency and Pesticides can be other contributing reasons, so it's essential that sufficient knowledge is attained to be able to differentiate which is what and how to deal with it.

The bee's lifecycle can be divided into two phases which is the larval phase and the adult phase and each phase is susceptible to its own set diseases

Bees Diseases :

(1) European Foul Brood  :

Is caused by : bacterium melissococcus plutonius
the bacteria feeds on food that's in the gut of the larval starving it to death.

The disease can be detected by unnatural position of the larval and color changes, which is from the pearly white (this indicates health) to a creamy or brown color.

(2) American Foul Brood  :

Is caused by : spore forming bacterium larvae, whereby the brood food is contaminated.

Once contaminated they develop into a bacterium that penetrates the gut wall then multiply within the tissues of the larval causing the larvae to die from blood poisoning.

It affects the bee larvae only but highly contagious and deadly to the brood.

(3) Nosema  :

Is caused by  Nosima Apis  that is a spore forming protozoa, it able to multiply in the bees stomach, causing digestion of pollen to be impaired, the end result is dead bees.

Symptoms  :

The most notable symptom is dysentery. This appears as yellow stripes on the outside of the hive and in severe cases, inside the hive. Bees may be unable to fly ("crawling") due to disjointed wings.

(4) Chalk Brood :

Is caused by  : the fungus Ascosphaera apis.

the fungus Ascosphaera apis infests the gut of the larva.

The fungus will compete with the larva for food, ultimately causing it to starve.

The fungus will then go on to consume the rest of the larva's body, causing it to appear white and 'chalky'.

This kind of disease is common with expanding colonies and it's still unclear what causes but it can be attributed to high Carbon dioxide levels in the nest if it's not properly ventilated or pollen deficiencies.

Chalkbrood is most commonly visible during wet springs.

Hives with Chalkbrood can generally be recovered by increasing the ventilation through the hive.


Cell Phone Kills Bees

Cell Phone Kills Bees
While we are talking in our cell phones and feel that these phones are very useful and very important in our daily life,  there is some evidence that cell phone radiation can be dangerous for people, as well as bees.

Studies have found that the 
electromagnetic radiations coming from cell phones, can heat and damage tissues, as well as possibly cause other diseases for people in the long term, including cancer, brain tumors, Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, and more.

People are not the only beings that are affected by cell phones, however. Some evidence has found that the radiation that comes from cell phones can also kill bees, causing many problems in the environment .

Honeybees pollinate crops and other plants, which helps vegetables and fruit to grow and it allows the plants to do their job replenishing the oxygen in the air.

What are the mobile radiation effects on the bees?

Studies have suggested that the electromagnetic radiation affects the internal navigation system of the bee, causing it to not be able to return to the hive.
The bees then die off, because they are not able to do their normal activities.

This premature dying off of the bees causes the fruits and vegetables to not grow as normal, simply because pollination does not occur. This affects the harvest, which can have a significant impact upon the world's food stores now and in the future.

Mobile radiation effects can include loss of food crops and can decrease the food for animals that are used for meat, including cows, chickens, and more.


Bees and Their Effect on Us and Our Environment

Honey bee gardens
Bees play a very important role in the world food supply. These small and incredibly busy insects are responsible for the way that we are able to get food and keep it.
Pollination is fundamental to sexual production in plants, Pollination is therefore essential for agriculture and environmental management, and a variety of pollinators are required to maintain reproduction across a broad spectrum of plant species.
Bees have such close relationships or connections with certain plants that if this connection or relation was to be broken, those plants would become extinct.

Recent years have brought dramatic decline to the bee population; this decline can be attributed to intensive methods of farming where the increased use of pesticides pollutes the plants that provide food for the bees.

There are other issues that contribute to this pandemic, like cooler wet summer seasons and increased cold winters or in other are very hot summer seasons.

Other problems includes the parasite known as the Varroa mite, it weakens the bee's immune system.This exposes the bees to attacks from other diseases, should a colony become contaminated by mites it's imperative that the problem is treated immediately to avoid the colony being wiped out.

The other challenges that bees face are Genetically Modified crops and extreme weather patterns caused by climate change.

What is the solutions  of these problems facing bees ?

1-     Getting rid of deadly chemical pesticides.
2-     Growing a lot of plants that have nectar rich flowers.

Finally I'd like to urge everyone who's passionate about nature to set up beehives in gardens and start taking care of them.


Bee Pollen-- The Amazing Health Benefits

honey bee pollen
Bee pollen is Produced by flowering plants, pollen granules stick to the bees' legs and other parts as they go about their business of gathering nectar and are collected from bees as they enter the hive.

Bee pollen contains all of the nutrients needed to sustain life. It is rich in vitamins and contains almost all known minerals, trace elements, enzymes, and amino acids.
More specifically, it contains 35% protein, 55% carbohydrates, 2% fatty acids, and 3% minerals and vitamins. It has been noted to have a high concentration of vitamins A, C, D, and E, and it is extraordinary rich in the B-complex vitamins.

In addition, bee pollen has antioxidant properties.
However, bee pollen's composition may vary depending on plant sources and geographic region.

What's the buzz about the health benefits of bee pollen?

Bee pollen is used as an energy booster as well as one that can increase vitality due to its B vitamin content. The B complex vitamins are well renowned for their ability to help combat stress and boost energy levels. In fact, some experts refer to the B vitamins as the stress or energy vitamins.

Bee pollen is also used to boost immunity and, as such, people who are susceptible to colds or upper respiratory tract infections may find bee pollen helpful.

Bee pollen is also used in detoxifying and strengthens the immune system.

In recent years, Chinese researchers indicated that bee pollen inhibits benign prostate overgrowth, slows the aging process, and lowers cholesterol and other lipids. This indication came from reported results of animal studies.

Bee pollen also contains lecithin. Lecithin is a substance that helps flush fat from the body and it stimulates the metabolic processes and, as such, it increases the speed at which calories are burned. Therefore, bee pollen may possibly be helpful as a weight-loss aid.

Bee pollen is certainly a superstar with its rich energizing nutrition content and, as such, it's a good source for promoting vibrant health and for health maintenance such as correcting deficient or unbalanced nutrition.

Precautions Of Bee Pollen Supplements:

People who are allergic to bee stings should not use bee pollen or any other supplements derived from bees because it could cause an allergic reaction.

One should discontinue use immediately if any symptoms develop like wheezing, headache, itchy throat, hives, or skin flushing.

If you are pregnant or nursing, consult your health care professional before using bee pollen.


Raising Queen Bees - a profitable project

honey bee keeping
Queen bees are the most important member in the bee colony.
Raising queen bees needs your full attention as you are raising very delicate creatures.

Beginners in beekeeping can buy their bees in different forms depending on their budget, their experience, and how much time they are able to dedicate to their project.

Raising queen bees is more difficult than raising a colony.

Queen bees need more attention and experience as you must separate any queen that appears from the colony to start forming a new colony.

If you want to see your colony producing honey as soon as possible, then you need to buy a complete colony to start with.
The complete colony contains one queen bee, several thousands of worker bees, and some male bees for reproduction.

If you want to see your colony grow step by step in front of your eyes, then you need to buy a smaller colony that contains only few thousands of worker bees.

You have to wait some time for your young colony to grow.

You will need to nourish them and provide them with the needed care to grow and start producing honey regularly.

By separating any new queen bee appears in each colony, then you can have many queen bees that are ready for making new bee colonies.

It is a profitable project to raise queen bees and sell them to other bee keepers.


Bee Pollen or Bee Bread

honey pollen
What is Bee Pollen?

Bee pollen contains trace amounts of minerals and vitamins and is very high in protein and carbohydrates.

Bee pollen is not found in the everyday diet. It is found in nutritional supplements and Chinese herbal medicine products.

Bee Pollen is consisting of pollen that has been packed by worker honeybees into granules, with added honey or nectar, and is used in naturopathic medicine traditions as a nutritional supplement, although exposure may trigger allergic or anaphylactic reactions in sensitive people.

Why Do People Use Bee Pollen?

Bee pollen has been used to enhance energy, memory and performance, although there is no scientific evidence that it does.

The benefits of bee pollen and allergy treatment is that it has been known to strengthen the respiratory system, is a supply of protein that aids the body in building a natural defense against allergic reactions, so Bee pollen is taken to treat some diseases by reducing the production of histamine, which causes allergic reactions in the body such as the common reaction of hay fever.

Some people believe that ingesting pollens will help to build resistance to them, although it is possible to have a severe allergic reaction to these pollens.

Bee Pollen Possible Side Effects and Contraindications :
-Bee pollen should not be taken if you have had prior reactions to bee stings or bee pollen. In some cases, anaphylactic shock has been reported.

If you have a history of any kind of anaphylactic shock from any allergic reaction, bee pollen and allergy treatment may not be the correct course of therapy for you.

Also Bee pollen contains allergens that may interact adversely with asthma.


These all adverse reactions occurred with small amounts of bee pollen, less than one teaspoon.


The Buzz About Using Bee Venom In Alternative Apitherapy

Apitherapy, coming from the Latin word for bee, focuses on the medical use of various bee products to cure a myriad of health problems
The treatment use of honey bee venom therapy is based on the long-known fact that

bee-keepers    ( who often get stung ) very rarely develop arthritis or problems with their joints and muscles

Apitoxin, or honey bee venom, is a bitter colorless liquid.

The active portion of the venom is a complex mixture of proteins, which causes local inflammation and acts as an anticoagulant.

The venom is produced in the abdomen of worker bees from a mixture of acidic and basic secretions.

Apitoxin is acidic (pH 4.5 to 5.5).
honeybee can inject 0.1 mg of venom via its stinger. It is estimated that 1% of the population is allergic to bee stings. Apitoxin can be deactivated with ethanol.

Bee venom therapy is used by some as a treatment for rheumatism and joint diseases due to its anticoagulant and anti-inflammatory properties. It is also used to desensitize people allergic to insect stings.

Bee venom therapy can also be delivered in the form of Bee Venom Balm although this may be less potent than using live bee stings.

Bee venom contains many different active chemical compounds. Melittin is the main one and is a very potent anti-inflammatory agent. Other chemicals in the venom act as painkillers and alter nerve pathway transmissions.

Bee venom therapy enthusiasts have used it for arthritis, for other inflammatory conditions and for the treatment of chronic scar tissue. Recent experiments have begun with some chronic multiple sclerosis (MS)

How It Works ?

Bee Venom Therapy (BVT) is administered in a rather straightforward fashion: 

the patient gets bee venom injected directly into his or her body by either using a needle, inserting the bee's stinger into their flesh, or letting a live bee sting them. A licensed doctor must administer the injections.

Usually, the patient receives anywhere from two to five stings each session, although for certain conditions people receive 20 stings at one time or more.

The bees will usually be contained in a special jar, box or hive, and will be placed directly on the area that needs to be treated.

Alternatively, you can buy a box of bees yourself from an apitherapist, or bee farmer, and let them sting you.

All you need is a pair of special tweezers and the guts to place a bee on your flesh and let it do its duty. It is recommended to wait from three to five minutes before removing the stinger.

It is important to check for allergies before trying any of bee products . People who are allergic to bees, suffer from asthma or have a compromised immune system should avoid bee products altogether...


Using honey in wound care

bee honey
Over the past several years, wound care has changed a lot, and is constantly evolving. The day of the simple gauze dressing is pretty much over! There are many fantastic new wound treatments out there today that were unheard of just a few years ago.

There are several alternative, and quite old-fashioned treatments for wounds that have been slowly gaining in popularity after having fallen into disuse for many years.

Wound care continues to be a challenge today, and many standard treatments are just not providing the expected results. Wounds can become infected with bacteria that are resistant to the standard prescribed antibiotics. That continues to be a challenge.

One of these old-fashioned treatments that have once again started to become fashionable are apitherapy (honey therapy).

Honey has been used in treating wounds as far back as the ancient Egyptians, Greeks, Romans and Chinese, and probably even further back in time than that.

When applied directly to a wound or on a dressing, honey acts as a moisturizing sealant, and helps to keep contamination out.

Its high sugar content plus the vitamins and minerals it contains are thought to provide nutrients that are necessary for wound healing and new tissue growth.

In addition, honey has certain properties that draw fluid from the wound and kill bacteria.

There is an enzyme in honey, which when exposed to the oxygen in air, forms its own kind of hydrogen peroxide. It is also anti-bacterial and helps to cleanse the wound.  
Honey can help debride, that is, remove dead or contaminated tissue----from a wound, and help it close.

Positive results have been reported at many randomized controlled trials around the world.

Honey seems especially promising as a wound dressing for cancer patients who have weakened immune systems and those patients who have chronic, stubborn wounds that refuse to heal.

Honey is used for treating children with burns. It is an ideal, and affordable, first aid dressing, especially in emergency situations, such as earthquakes. It is quite suitable for burn treatment, especially in areas where water used to cool the burn is contaminated.


three Common Honey Bee Types

Learning about the different types of bees can help in identifying which ones are more suitable for beekeeping than others.

Certain bees don't tolerate a lot of disturbance while others do.
Within this article I hope to give you some indication about three common honey bees' types as well as the two other types as far as behavioral differences are concerned.

Behavioral dimension :

There are effectively two known types of bees if one considers the behavioral dimension. In fact, there are solitary bees and social ones. What are solitary bees and what are social bees?

Solitary bees are bees that do not live in a colony

Social bees do the contrary, meaning that the queen the workers and the drones live all in a colony.

Disturbance Level :

These little creatures also differ in their tolerance of disturbances. In fact, certain colonies may abandon their hives because of disturbances. 
However, the level of disturbances tolerated by bees varies. Some bees can tolerate more disturbances than others.

(1) The Apis Florae :

First of beginning with bees that don't tolerate a lot of disturbance we have the apis florae. As mentioned earlier, if the apis florae feels disturbed it is likely to leave its hive.

This species are characterized by a smaller size when compared to other honeybees, they build single comb hive and are generally found in forest as well as in lush, areas of farming .

(2) the Apis Dorsata (the rock bee) : 
The rock bee or apis dorsata is another type of honeybee. It is characterized by a bigger when compared to the other honeybees

The apis dorsata shares some similarities with the apis florae or dwarf bee. 
Effectively, the rock bee also may abandon its hive because of disturbances. 
Additionally, the apis dorsata, construct single comb hives like the apis florae. Their hive can also be found suspended like those of the dwarf bees.

Having the hive suspended 5 meters above the ground can serve as a protection against honey predators of a larger size .

(3) the Apis Cerana (oriental honey bee)
The Apis Cerana differs particularly from the dwarf and rock bees in the fact that the apis cerana can live and be raised in man-made beehives.

The apis cerana build parallel comb hives instead of the single comb hives particular to the two other honey bees types .

The climate seems to have an influence on the size of the bees. Consequently, due to the variety of places with diverse climates where the oriental honey bee can be found, the bees also have different sizes.


What is Apitherapy and Its Benefits?

royal jelly benefits
There are literally hundreds of alternative therapies that are available for people to try. However one of the least known and probably accepted therapies is apitherapy.

What is Apitherapy?

Apitherapy or bee therapy is the basically the use of bee products to treat different conditions. There are a number of products that can have health benefits and be used in apitherapy and they include pollen, raw honey and royal jelly however the main one used is bee venom.

The use of bee products and in particular bee venom dates back to ancient Greece, Egypt and China.

In fact it is believed that Hippocrates who is considered to be the father of medicine actually used bee stings to treat people for conditions such as arthritis.

In addition in 1888 Philip Terc published a paper on bee venom and rheumatism. 

Today bee stings are used throughout the world as a treatment for a wide variety of different conditions.

Health Benefits of bee products :

1. Bee Venom :

this can be given to people as actual stings or can be given through a needle.

Bee stings have been shown to contain substances such as adolapin and melittin which are anti-inflammatory substances and are thought to be more powerful than commonly prescribed products such as cortisol. 

For this reason bee stings are thought to be very valuable for treating conditions like arthritis, bursitis, rheumatism and tendinitis.

2. Bee Pollen :

This product is high in vitamins and minerals and can be used as a nutritional supplement. 

In addition it can be a valuable treatment for people suffering from seasonal allergies such as hay fever. In additions some claim it can help with anti-aging and athletic performance.

3. Raw Honey :

This is honey that has not been processed in anyway and is thought to be a source of energy. 

In addition it is believed to have antibacterial properties that could make it good for treating things like sore throats.

4. Royal Jelly:

There have been a number of claims about the health benefits of royal jelly and some say it can help with things like fatigue, infertility, asthma, and lack of appetite. 

In addition studies have shown that it could be useful at reducing cholesterol levels. You will also find royal jelly in a number of anti-aging products such as face cream.

Risks of Apitherapy :

There are a number of people who should not undertake apitherapy or should take extra care. For example if you have an allergy to bee stings then you need to take extra care.

As many people may not be aware of the allergy it is important to choose a reputable therapist who will be prepared if you have an allergic reaction as they can often be very severe.

In addition people who have heart disease, hypertension, tuberculosis, or diabetes should make sure they avoid apitherapy completely. Honey should not be given to children under the age of one due to the possible bacteria in it and people who have a weak immune system should also avoid honey.

Finally the recommended dosage for many of the bee products is not known so care should always be taken to ensure you remain safe.

How To Choose The Best Beekeeping Books

How To Choose The Best Beekeeping Books
To start a serious beekeeping business, some great literature on the topic will be one of your priorities.

While much of keeping and managing these little flying insects is hands on, the topic requires a small wealth of knowledge for the best success.

When you are first getting started, this can feel like an overwhelming task - even for the hobbyist.

Where is the best place to get the most reliable information?

Your local library will likely have a section on the topic, but it may be too much of a trip for you. It can also be annoying when the book you really want to read has already been checked out.

You can research online as well, but this can take a lot of time. There are may facets to beekeeping that will come up in your searches, and much of this information may not be relevant to you.

Probably the easiest way to get your organized information quickly is by ordering an e book. 

What kind of contents should you be on the lookout for? 

For those who are beginners, keep alert for a step by step guide. A proper guide will come with some clear pictures and diagrams, and should be easy to follow. Terms will be well defined and everything uncovered in good detail.

Here are the topics you'll want your beekeeping e book to cover:

How to start beekeeping ?

Where are the right places?

When is the best time of year to start and perform specific duties ?

What are the tools you will need ?

How much equipment is necessary ?

What is the best way to control the bees ?

What are the techniques to place bees in the hive and remove them when needed ?

How to extract honey ?

The kinds of bees available, and enough detail for you to discern the right ones for you to get .

Basic beekeeping laws and what you might expect from some local governments.

If you have never purchased an e book, they are generally produced in a way that they can be opened on any computer. 

One great advantage is because of it's electronic format you can quickly type in a term and find reference to it quickly within the book. 

E books may also contain some embedded links that can make a trip to a website with more information just a quick click away.

With todays technology, whole libraries of e books can be downloaded onto a Kindle or even an Ipad and this can make for no lack of great reading materials on any trip. 

It is possible to come across e books that are somewhat dated. 

Do look out for the most recent and updated information when it comes to beekeeping as the art is constantly evolving. 

You will want to be up to date on the newest technologies, as well as warned of any new diseases or bee issues.

Article Source:http://www.articlecity.com/articles/pets_and_animals/article_3486.shtml

Life of a Carniolan Queen Bee

Carniolan Queen Bee is a big lady who dares to kill and spends her entire life to do nothing else than mating and laying eggs while well served and fed by the worker bees.

The metamorphosis of queen bees :

Before a female bee becomes a queen she will go through a metamorphosis from an egg to a stage of a mature queen which will occur in about 23 days. 

The phases include: egg - larva - capping of the queen cell - pupa - emerging pupa, virgin queen bee - nuptial flight - a mature queen bee ready to lay eggs.

In fact, those are the worker bees that make queens. 

After a queen bee has laid eggs in queen cups, the worker bees start to select which among all those larvae should be developed to be queens. 

They will then provide more quality food, which is the royal jelly, to those selected larvae. 

Although all larvae are fed with royal jelly at the beginning for several days, but only queen larvae will be fed continuously and exclusively. 

The rest of the larvae will become worker bees.

Queen bees are raised in very special constructed cells. 

Initially the eggs were placed in queen cups, as the larva emerge the worker bees then build it further to become a queen cell to exclusively feed the larva. 

The worker bees then will cap the queen cell with beeswax. In these cells larvae will develop into pupae. In about 7 - 10 days the pupa becomes a virgin queen bee and tries to emerge from the queen cell.

Upon maturity the virgin queen bee in her peanut-like cell will try to go out by chewing a circular opening on the cap cell made by the worker bees.

After most of the cap has been cut, the cap will eventually swing open resembling a hinged closure. With the presence of the virgin queen, the old mother queen will give way to the young virgin and voluntarily leave the hive with the primary swarm.

A virgin queen is a bit larger than most of the worker bees, but smaller than the mated laying queen.

In fact, a virgin queen is not easily distinguished when put together with the worker bees in a frame. She moves actively and can run across the honeycomb, scrambles over the workers and may even fly if she feels annoyed by the workers. 
You can frequently find a virgin queen hanging on the hive wall or corner.

The deadly queen competition :

As soon as a virgin queen bee emerges from her cell, she will look for other emerging queen bees with only one straight purpose, to kill them! 

As there are many virgin bees in a colony, with all of them having the same purpose, it is most likely that a war of virgin bees is about to happen.

Virgin bees do not just killed their direct rival virgin bees, but also the un-emerged virgin bee still occupying its cell.

You can often see an opened side of a queen cell with a dead pupa inside, indicating an assassination by another virgin queen.

When the swarm mode of a colony continues and the primary swarm has left the hive, the worker bees can temporarily hold the virgins fighting each other. Some virgins may leave and follow an after-swarm, while other virgins will stay and look for an opportunity to continue the deadly competition

At the end only one virgin remains who will become the new queen bee. If a primary swarm has both a new young queen and an old queen in the same time, the new queen will let the old queen to live and continue to lie down. 

After a few weeks the old queen will eventually die naturally and time has come for the young virgin to take over.

The nuptial flight :

This is an important phase of the queen bee where she mates with bee males and then land to start the new generation of a colony in a hive. 

The mating is typically carried out during a flight of the queen and male bees, hence called nuptial flight.

The mating should happen in a clear weather with the absence of rain which could be a trouble for flying insects. 

The queen starts to release pheromones to attract the males. However, after releasing the pheromone it often happens that the queen tries to escape the males letting only the fastest and fittest male bees to mate her. The mating will occur during the flight.

It is common that a queen will mate with a number of males and stores the sperm in a special organ in her abdomen which can last for her whole life. 

This sperm storage is good for about 20 years which can produce ten of millions fertilized eggs. 

The queen is now ready to lay eggs continuously and she totally becomes an egg laying machine to breed the younger bee generation. 

Oh, what a life of a queen bee. 

Life Cycle Of Honey Bees .

Three Things Successful Beekeepers Know :

1. The unique life cycle of the honey bee :

The queen bee lays eggs in the octagonal shaped cells and the eggs get attached to the wall of the cell with a strand of mucus.

During spring when the eggs are being laid, the queen bee can lay up to 1900 eggs in a day. 

The egg remains in the cell until it hatches and there emerges a larva.

There are nurse bees that have to care for the larvae and feed the larvae with honey and secretions from the glands which are referred to as bee bread.

There are five stages to the development of a larva, and the larva sheds the outer skin after each of these stages. On the sixth day of this procedure the larva is cocooned by one of the worker bees in its cell where it stays for the next eight to ten days and then emerges as a fully formed bee from its cocoon.

2. The life span of a honey bee :

The life span of the honey bees depends on the purpose that they are in the hive for .

Different jobs have different honeybees doing it and their life spans also differ accordingly. 

The queen bee has a life span of two years but this is only if she has been inseminated with a sufficient amount of sperm while she was on her nuptial flight.

The queen bee if she is in a good condition can lay up to 2000 eggs in a day and is also responsible for killing her mother and sisters too. 

The queen bee has nothing to do as there are enough bees in her entourage to feed her and to clean the waste matter too.

An older queen bee will leave the nest while the rest of the bees from the hive are going to swarm. This usually happens during spring time. 

Those who are proficient in bee keeping, think that the queen bee generates some sort of pheromone that avoids the worker bees from the hives in becoming interested in sex.

The virgin queen bee is one who has not had her nuptial flight. 

The drone bees are the ones that survive only until they have impregnated the queen bee during her nuptial flight. The drone bee dies after mating with the queen bee.

3. Life of the worker bee :

The worker bee lives for one hundred and forty days only during the winter, and during summer it is only forty days. 

They have a short life span because they literally work themselves to death. 

There are many different duties that the worker bees have to perform.

The nurse bees take care of the larvae while others have to go out and collect pollen to make honey. 

Other workers have to be capping the honey combs while some have to attend on the queen bee. 

These worker bees also have to starve the drone bees to death and clean the hives. 

All worker bees are always sterile and in case they lay an egg are drone bees.

Each hive has between twenty thousand to two hundred thousand bees in a one hive. 

The bees only survive if their queen life, if anything happens to the queen bee then the whole hive dies.

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